Reviewed by Brian Chalmers It is nearly impossible to dig into any chapter of Jewish history without uncovering lessons for our own age. Spain during the 15th and 16th centuries is a particularly striking example. Even today, our view of this period, and particularly of the Spanish Inquisition, colors our attitudes regarding relations between Jews and non-Jews.
After several long discussions, the emperor managed to convince the Eastern representatives to accept the Western doctrines of Filioque, Purgatory and the supremacy of the Papacy.
On 6 Junean agreement was signed by all the Eastern bishops present but one, Mark of Ephesuswho held that Rome continued in both heresy and schism. It seemed that the Great Schism had been ended. However, upon their return, the Eastern bishops found their agreement with the West broadly rejected by the populace and by civil authorities with the notable exception of the emperors of the East who remained committed to union until the Fall of Constantinople two decades later.
The union signed at Florence has never been accepted by the Eastern churches. Fall of Constantinople[ edit ] Painting by the Greek folk painter Theophilos Hatzimihail showing the battle inside the city, Constantine is visible on a white horse Inthe Eastern Roman Empire fell to the Ottoman Empire.
But Orthodoxy was still very strong in Russia which became autocephalous sincealthough this was not officially accepted by Constantinople until ; and thus Moscow called itself the Third Romeas the cultural heir of Constantinople.
Eastern Christians expressed a belief that the fall of Constantinople was God's punishment for the emperor and clergy accepting the West's doctrines of filioquepurgatory and the supremacy of the papacy. The West did not fulfill its promise to the Eastern emperor of troops and support if he agreed to the reconciliation.
The Sack of Constantinople is still considered proof by the East that the West ultimately succeeded in its endeavor to destroy the East. Under Ottoman rule, the Orthodox Church acquired power as an autonomous millet.
The ecumenical patriarch was the religious and administrative ruler of the entire Rum Millet Ottoman administrative unitwhich encompassed all the Eastern Orthodox subjects of the empire.
Those appointed to the role were chosen by the Muslims rulers not the Church. As a result of the Ottoman conquest, the entire Orthodox communion of the Balkans and the Near East became suddenly isolated from the West.
For the next four hundred years, it was confined within the Islamic world, with which it had little in common religiously or culturally. Stavronikita monastery, South-East view Isolation from the West[ edit ] As a result of the Ottoman conquest of the Byzantine Empire inand the Fall of Constantinoplethe entire Orthodox communion of the Balkans and the Near East became suddenly isolated from the West.
For the next four hundred years, it was confined within a hostile Islamic world, with which it had little in common religiously or culturally. The Russian Orthodox Church was the only part of the Orthodox communion which remained outside the control of the Ottoman Empire.
It is, in part, due to this geographical and intellectual confinement that the voice of Eastern Orthodoxy was not heard during the Reformation in 16th-century Europe.
As a result, this important theological debate often seems strange and distorted to the Orthodox. They never took part in it and thus neither Reformation nor Counter-Reformation is part of their theological framework. Religious rights under the Ottoman Empire[ edit ] Further information: Islam and anti-Christian persecution Islam recognized Jesus as a great prophet and considered Christians as another People of the Book.
But it imposed severe penalties including frequent deaths for non Muslims. As such, the Church was not extinguished nor was its canonical and hierarchical organization completely destroyed. Its administration continued to function though in lesser degree, no longer being the state religion.
One of the first things that Mehmet the Conqueror did was to allow the Church to elect a new patriarch, Gennadius Scholarius. The Hagia Sophia and the Parthenonwhich had been Christian churches for nearly a millennium, were converted into mosques, yet most other churches, both in Constantinople and elsewhere, remained in Christian hands.
Because Islamic law makes no distinction between nationality and religion, all Christians, regardless of their language or nationality, were considered a single milletor nation.
The patriarch, as the highest ranking hierarch, was thus invested with civil and religious authority and made ethnarchhead of the entire Christian Orthodox population. Practically, this meant that all Orthodox Churches within Ottoman territory were under the control of Constantinople.
Thus, the authority and jurisdictional frontiers of the patriarch were enormously enlarged. However, these rights and privilegesincluding freedom of worship and religious organisation, were often established in principle but seldom corresponded to reality.
The legal privileges of the patriarch and the Church depended, in fact, on the whim and mercy of the Sultan and the Sublime Portewhile all Christians were viewed as second-class citizens.In this section of the course, we advance our investigation of medieval Spain to learn about Islamic al-Andalus (Islamic Spain) and Jewish Sefarad (Jewish Spain).
This includes a study of the Islamic conquest of Visigothic Spain and the subsequent development of the Umayyad Dynasty. The 15th century is part of the High Middle Ages, the period from the coronation of Charlemagne in to the close of the 15th century, which saw the fall of Constantinople (), the end of the Hundred Years War (), the discovery of the New World (), and .
Castile, Spanish Castilla, traditional central region constituting more than one-quarter of the area of peninsular monstermanfilm.come’s northern part is called Old Castile and the southern part is called New monstermanfilm.com region formed the core of the Kingdom of Castile, under which Spain was united in the late 15th and early 16th centuries.
The Catholic Church in Spain has a long history, starting in the 1st century. It is the largest religion in Spain, with 68% of Spaniards identifying as Catholic.. Attempts were made from the late 1st century to the late 3rd century to establish the church in the Iberian peninsula.
Canons of the Synod of Elvira (circa AD) indicate that the church was greatly . Granada flourished culturally and economically for the next years, but in the late 15th century internal feuds and a strengthened Spanish monarchy under Ferdinand and Isabella signaled the end.
The 'Jewish Question' in 15th and 16th Century Spain. The Origins of the Inquisition in Fifteenth Century Spain, by Benzion Netanyahu. New York: Random House, out or forcibly baptized in In the decades that followed, Spain amassed great wealth and a vast empire.
By the late s it was the world's foremost military and.