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History[ edit ] Amate paper has a long history. This history is not only because the raw materials for its manufacture have persisted but also that the manufacture, distribution and uses have adapted to the needs and restrictions of various epochs.
This history can be roughly divided into three periods: Amate tree growing in northern GuerreroMexico. The development of paper in Mesoamerica parallels that of China and Egypt, which used rice and papyrus respectively.
It was discovered at the site of HuitzilapaJalisco. Huitzilapa is a shaft tomb culture site located northwest of Tequila Volcano near the town of Magdalena. The crumpled piece of paper was found in the southern chamber of the site's shaft tomb, possibly associated with a male scribe.
Rather than being produced from Trema micranthafrom which modern amate is made, the amate found at Huitzilapa is made from Ficus tecolutensis.
Coe and other researchers have asserted is authentic and dated to the 12thth century CE. Anthropologist Marion mentions that in Lacandonesin Chiapasthe Maya were still manufacturing and using bark clothing in the s.
For these reason, it was probably the Maya who first propagated knowledge about bark-paper-making and spread it throughout southern Mexico, GuatemalaBelizeHondurasand El Salvadorwhen it was at its height in the pre-classic period.
This amounted to aboutsheets annually. Most of the production was concentrated in the modern state of Moreloswhere Ficus trees are abundant because of the climate. It was also sent to the religious elites for ritual purposes. The last share was allotted to royal scribes for the writing of codices and other records.
Stone beaters dating from the 6th century CE have been found, and these tools are most often found where amate trees grow.
Most are made of volcanic stone with some made of marble and granite. They are usually rectangular or circular with grooves on one or both sides to macerate the fibers. These beaters are still used by Otomi artisans, and almost all are volcanic, with an additional groove added on the side to help hold the stone.
According to some early Spanish accounts, the bark was left overnight in water to soak, after which the finer inner fibers were separated from coarser outer fibers and pounded into flat sheets.
But it is not known who did the work, or how the labor was divided. This paper was related to power and religion, the way through which the Aztecs imposed and justified their dominance in Mesoamerica. As tribute, it represented a transaction between the dominant groups and the dominated villages.
In the second phase, the paper used by the royal authorities and priests for sacred and political purposes was a way to empower and frequently register all the other sumptuary exclusive things.
It was preceded by stone, clay and leather to transmit knowledge first in the form of pictures, and later with the Olmecs and Maya through a form of hieroglyphic writing.Latest India Stock/Share Market News, NSE, BSE, Global Market, Sensex Nifty. Live Business News headlines on IPO, Stock/Share tips, Personal Finance, Budget, Tax, Mutual Fund, Commodity Market.
The recent rise of specialty pharma is attributed to its flexible, versatile, and open business model while the traditional big pharma is facing a challenging time with patent cliff, generic threat, and low research and development (R&D) productivity.
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