See Article History Alternative Title: Hammurapi Hammurabi, also spelled Hammurapi, born, Babylon [now in Iraq]—died c. See Hammurabi, Code of.
Babylon was overshadowed by older, larger and more powerful kingdoms such as ElamAssyriaIsinEshnunna and Larsa for a century or so after its founding. However his father Sin-Muballit had begun to consolidate rule of a small area of south central Mesopotamia under Babylonian hegemony and, by the time of his reign, had conquered the minor city-states of BorsippaKishand Sippar.
The powerful kingdom of Eshnunna controlled the upper Tigris River while Larsa controlled the river delta. To the east of Mesopotamia lay the powerful kingdom of Elam which regularly invaded and forced tribute upon the small states of southern Mesopotamia.
In northern Mesopotamia, the Assyrian king Shamshi-Adad Iwho had already inherited centuries old Assyrian colonies in Asia Minorhad expanded his territory into the Levant and central Mesopotamia although his untimely death would somewhat fragment his empire.
Hammurabi used his power to undertake a series of public works, including heightening the city walls for defensive purposes, and expanding the temples. Eventually Hammurabi prevailed, ousting Ishme-Dagan I just before his own death. Mut-Ashkurthe new king of Assyria, was forced to pay tribute to Hammurabi.
In just a few years, Hammurabi succeeded in uniting all of Mesopotamia under his rule. The stele was later plundered by the Elamites and removed to their capital, Susa ; it was rediscovered there in in Iran and is now in the Louvre Museum in Paris.
The code of Hammurabi contains laws, written by scribes on 12 tablets. Unlike earlier laws, it was written in Akkadianthe daily language of Babylon, and could therefore be read by any literate person in the city. The punishments tended to be very harsh by modern standards, with many offenses resulting in death, disfigurement, or the use of the " Eye for eye, tooth for tooth " Lex Talionis "Law of Retaliation" philosophy.
A carving at the top of the stele portrays Hammurabi receiving the laws from Shamashthe Babylonian god of justice,  and the preface states that Hammurabi was chosen by Shamash to bring the laws to the people.
Wright argues that the Jewish Covenant Code is "directly, primarily, and throughout" based upon the Laws of Hammurabi. Terracotta tablet, from Nippur, Iraq, c. If he commit a crime a second time, the father may cut off his son from sonship.
If one destroy the eye of a freeman or break the bone of a freeman he shall pay one mana of silver. If a man knock out a tooth of a man of his own rank, they shall knock out his tooth.
If one knock out a tooth of a freeman, he shall pay one-third mana of silver. If a physician operate on a slave of a freeman for a severe wound with a bronze lancet and cause his death, he shall restore a slave of equal value.
If it cause the death of a son of the owner of the house, they shall put to death a son of that builder. If it cause the death of a slave of the owner of the house, he shall give the owner of the house a slave of equal value.
If it destroy property, he shall restore whatever it destroyed, and because he did not make the house which he built firm and it collapsed, he shall rebuild the house which collapsed from his own property i.
Legacy[ edit ] Commemoration after his death[ edit ] Hammurabi was honored above all other kings of the second millennium BC  and he received the unique honor of being declared to be a god within his own lifetime.
I myself continued to put straight their confused minds. This song for you was composed in his reign. May he be given life forever! The stele was only partially erased and was never re-inscribed.
Around the same time, native Akkadian speakers threw off Amorite Babylonian rule in the far south of Mesopotamia, creating the Sealand Dynastyin more or less the region of ancient Sumer. Thus was Babylon quickly reduced to the small and minor state it had once been upon its founding.
Hammurabi is one of the 23 lawgivers depicted in marble bas-reliefs in the chamber of the U. House of Representatives in the United States Capitol.Hammurabi: Hammurabi, sixth and best-known ruler of the 1st (Amorite) dynasty of Babylon (reigning c.
– bce), noted for his surviving set of laws, once considered the oldest promulgation of laws in human history.
See Hammurabi, Code of. Like all the kings of his dynasty except his father and. Babylonia, named for the city of Babylon, was an ancient state in Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad.
Its capital was Babylon. The earliest mention of Babylon can be found in a tablet of the reign of Sargon of Akkad, dating back to the twenty-third century B.C.E. It became the center of empire under Hammurabi (c. B.C.E. and again under. A Biography of Hammurabi the King of Babylonia and the Sixth Ruler of the Amorite Dynasty PAGES 2.
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Hammurabi was the sixth king in the Babylonian dynasty, Hammu, which means “family” in Amorite, 8 Things You May Not Know About Hammurabi’s Code. topic.
Babylonia. video Play video. Hammurabi (also known as Khammurabi and Ammurapi, reigned BCE) was the sixth king of the Amorite First Dynasty of Babylon, assumed the.